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Key cases

Cases that enhance student rights

• Tinker v. Des Moines

This 1969 decision stated students do not lose their rights at the schoolhouse gate

—  http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1968/1968_21

—  http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/comm/free_speech/tinker.html

—  http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=393&invol=503

—  http://www.landmarkcases.org/tinker/home.html

—  http://www.abanet.org/publiced/lawday/tinker/home.html

•  Dean v. Utica

This Michigan case substantively supported the Tinker decision where student media has either been practicing as a public forum or is designated as one. Is precise in stating Hazelwood does not cover all student expression in high schools

 http://en.allexperts.com/e/d/de/dean_v._utica.htm

—  http://www.splc.org/pdf/deanvutica.pdf

 http://www.splc.org/pdf/utica_arrow.pdf

— http://www.splc.org/newsflash.asp?id=911

— http://www.nsba.org/MainMenu/SchoolLaw/Issues/StudentRights/RecentCases/DeanvUticaCommunitySchools2004WL2651236EDMichNovember172004.aspx

—  http://www.studentpress.org/nspa/trends/~law0205hs.html

• Lexington v. Yeo

This First Circuit case demonstrated the importance of practicing forum status and of student decision making.

http://lw.bna.com/lw/19980106/961623.htm

http://www.splc.org/report_detail.asp?id=209&edition=9

—  http://www.yeodoug.com/articles/text/livefree.html

—  http://openjurist.org/131/f3d/241/yeo-v-town-of-lexington

Draudt v Wooster City School District

This sixth circuit decision set forth a legal test for distinguishing between nonpublic and public forum scholastic media. The court held that nonpublic forum media are subject to the Hazelwood standard. Publications classified as public forums are protected by the much higher Tinker-based standard.

–  http://www.splc.org/law_library.asp?id=35

—  http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/Speech/studentexpression/cases_resources_summary.aspx

—  http://www.ajr.org/Article.asp?id=2899

—  http://www.studentpress.org/nspa/trends/~law0203hs.html

•   Board of Education, Island Trees Union Free School District No.

26 v. Pico, 457 U.S. 853

This decision ruled that the First Amendment limits a school board’s ability to remove or ban books in school libraries.

—  http://www.oyez.org/cases/1980-1989/1981/1981_80_2043

—  http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=457&invol=853

—  http://www.freedomforum.org/packages/first/curricula/educationforfreedom/supportpages/L05-CaseStudyIslandTreesUnion.htm

• West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette

This Supreme Court decision protected a student from being forced to say the Pledge of Allegiance in school.

—  http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/barnette.html

—  http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=319&invol=624

—  http://supreme.justia.com/us/319/624/case.html

Cases that inhibit or are cited to limit student rights

•  Bethel School District v. Fraser

This decision gave school officials the ability to limit student speech of a lesser standards than substantial and material disruption.

—  http://www.oyez.org/cases/1980-1989/1985/1985_84_1667

—  http://www.abanet.org/publiced/youth/sia/holtcases/bethel.html

—  http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=478&invol=675

—  http://www.freedomforum.org/templates/document.asp?documentID=13701

—  http://www.firstamendmentschools.org/freedoms/case.aspx?id=35

•   Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier

This US Supreme Court decision gave schools the ability to limit student expression if student media are not public forums for student expression by policy or practice and if school officials have a legitimate pedagogical reason.

—  http://www.oyez.org/cases/1980-1989/1987/1987_86_836/

—  http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=484&invol=260

—  http://www.splc.org/legalresearch.asp?id=4

—  http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9216/hazelwood.htm

—  http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/faclibrary/case.aspx?case=Hazelwood_v_Kuhlmeier

Frederick v. Morse

Commonly known as Bong Hits 4 Jesus, this decision created further limits on Tinker’s support of student expression.

—  http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2006/2006_06_278/

—  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n_LsGoDWC0o

— http://fora.tv/2008/05/07/Bong_Hits_4_Jesus_Whats_Left_of_Student_Free_Speech#Frank_LoMonte_on_Effects_of_Morse_v_Frederick_Decision

—  http://www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/06pdf/06-278.pdf

—  http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=000&invol=06-278

—  http://www.shmoop.com/free-speech/bethel-v-fraser-morse-v-frederick.html

 

Cases affecting advisers

• Garcetti v. Ceballos

This decision limits the speech rights of pubic employees in many situations when they speak as school employees.

—  http://www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/05pdf/04-473.pdf

—  http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=000&invol=04-473

—  http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2005/2005_04_473

—  http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/faclibrary/case.aspx?case=Garcetti_v_Ceballos

• Pickering v. Board of Education

This decision supported a teacher’s claim that a letter written critical of the school was protected by the First Amendment

—  http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=391&invol=563

—  http://supreme.justia.com/us/391/563/

—  http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1967/1967_510

 

Mixed decisions

• Nuxoll v. Indian Prairie School District
This decision is about a T—shirt with an anti-gay message. It is a split case with strong language by the ruling viewpoint dismissing the credibility of student speech in any form.

–  http://feministlawprofs.law.sc.edu/?p=3430

—  http://americansfortruth.com/news/appeals-court-says-il-school-cannot-ban-be-happy-not-gay-t-shirts.html (includes link to full text, which is important to see the two sides of the decision)

— http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/news.aspx?id=19965

— http://www.splc.org/pdf/Neuqua7thCircuit.pdf

—  http://www.splc.org/newsflash_archives.asp?id=1748&year=2008

General decisions/lesson plans

• Times v Sullivan
This Supreme Court decision established the concept of actual malice with libel.

http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=376&invol=254

—  http://supreme.justia.com/us/376/254/case.html

—  http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/faclibrary/case.aspx?case=New_York_Times_Co_v_Sullivan

• First Amendment timeline
http://firstamendment.jideas.org/first/timeline.php

• Education for Freedom lesson plans

http://www.freedomforum.org/packages/first/curricula/educationforfreedom/index.htm