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Solutions journalism in student publications

Posted by on Aug 29, 2017 in Blog, Lessons, Scholastic Journalism, Teaching | 0 comments

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by Kristin Taylor

Title

Solutions journalism in student publications

Description

Critics accuse the news media of only reporting bad news, but journalists must investigate and report on problems. One alternative to reporting solely on the problem is to report on how people and communities are seeking to solve those problems. This form of investigative journalism is called “solutions journalism.” This lesson provides an introduction to solutions journalism and encourages student reporters to generate ideas about how they could use this approach in their own reporting.

Objectives

  • Students will be able to define solutions-based journalism and analyze how it differs from traditional news coverage.
  • Students will read examples of solution journalism and analyze how a solutions approach changed the article.
  • Students will apply solutions-based thinking to a current topic they could report and create a reporting plan.

Common Core State Standards

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.2 Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.11-12.6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text.

Length

60 minutes

Materials

Whiteboard and markers

Teacher computer and digital projector

Student computers, if available

solutionsjournalism.org video

Bad news isn’t the whole story” episode of On The Media podcast

Lesson step-by-step

Step 1 — Warm up (5 minutes)

Ask, “What is the difference between journalism and advocacy? Given fears about being perceived as advocates rather than objective journalists, how can a reporter write a story about solutions to problems?” Students offer thoughts; teacher records ideas on the board. Say, “Today we are going to explore the concept of Solutions Journalism and think about how you might use this approach for one of your own stories.”

Step 2 — Video and think-pair-share (10 minutes)

Teacher plays two-minute video from solutionsjournalism.org introducing the concept of solutions journalism. In pairs, students summarize what they learned about the concept and come up with a definition for “solutions journalism.” Partners share their definitions with the class.

Step 3 — Class discussion (10 minutes)

As a follow-up, the teacher asks questions to make sure they understand these key ideas:

  • The video does not suggest that ALL journalism should focus on solutions, but rather suggests there should be a mix. Why is that so important?
  • Why would it be important to look at solutions that aren’t working alongside those that are?
  • How is this kind of journalism different from straight advocacy?

Step 4 — Partner activity (25 minutes)

Students meet back up with their partners and go to solutionsjournalism.org. Together, they select two stories to read from “The Best Solutions Journalism of 2016.” (If students do not have access to computers, the teacher can pick out two stories ahead of time and print them out for the class.) Partners should discuss these stories and why the Solutions Journalism Network selected them. They should consider how each story would have been different if it didn’t have a solutions focus.

Step 5 — Assessment (10 minutes)

Groups will share final thoughts and takeaways from these articles and then brainstorm at least three potential problems at school or in our local community. As a class, look at each problem and discuss how students could investigate that problem from a solutions journalism mindset.

Extension

Students can listen to the 11-minute podcast episode of On the Media called “Bad News Isn’t the Whole Story,” an interview with one of the cofounders of the SJN. The class would discuss how Rosenberg responds to journalists who fear being labeled advocates if they practice solutions journalism.

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Developing guidelines for the use of
sponsored content in your student media

Posted by on Aug 29, 2017 in Blog, Lessons, Scholastic Journalism, Teaching | 0 comments

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by John Bowen

Title

Developing guidelines for the possible use of sponsored content (or native ads) in your student media

Description –– second in the sponsored news sequence
Because of the rapid spread of sponsored content or native advertising, it is possible your students will have to decide whether to use them in their student media. Faced with that decision, what arguments would students raise and what decisions would they make – and why?

Objectives

  • Students will review their plusses and minuses discussion about use of native ads and sponsored content, focusing on the strongest arguments.
  • Students will develop ethical guidelines about the use of native ads and sponsored content in your student media.
  • Students will evaluate their work, the goal being to reach agreement on guidelines for each for inclusion in their staff manual.

Common Core State Standards

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1.D Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.2 Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.4 Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.

Length

50 minutes

Materials / resources

Blackboard or whiteboard

Teacher laptop and digital projector

Internet access

Model SPRC ethical guidelines for sponsored content/native ads

Ethical guidelines template

Lesson step-by-step

Step 1 — Warm-up (5 minutes)

The teacher will summarize the discussions on native ads and sponsored content and introduce the concept of students in small groups developing ethical guidelines for the use of native ads and sponsored content in their student media.

Step 2 — Small group work (25 minutes)

The teacher will ask students to form small groups of three or four depending on class enrollment. Half the groups will focus on ethical guidelines for native ads and half on ethical guidelines for sponsored content.

The teacher will distribute links to the ethical guideline models from the SPRC and the ethical guidelines template for student use as required.

Students will create drafts of ethical guidelines to be shared with other teams so they can select items for final statements for their staff manual.

Step 3 — Whole group instruction (20 minutes)

Student groups will share their work with other teams who did the same assignment. At the end of the discussion period student teams will synthesize their work into one final native ads ethical guideline and one final sponsored content ethical guideline for inclusion in student media staff manuals.

Assessment

Since this basically planning work in teams, no individual grades need be given at this point. The teacher might choose to evaluate student work by assigning an opinion statement due the next class. This statement would share with student media audiences why student journalists felt this statement was needed and the issues it addresses.

Extension

Student groups might add one more step in the approval process by digitally sharing final drafts with those handling the other topic for comment and later resolution.

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Propaganda

Posted by on Aug 29, 2017 in Blog, Lessons, Scholastic Journalism, Teaching | 0 comments

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by Michael Johnson

Title

Propaganda

Description
In this lesson, students explore propaganda techniques, and discuss how they are the targets of advertisers and politicians. Students will understand and identify how propaganda techniques are used to influence them into doing, feeling and believing a message that may or may not be of benefit to them. Students will create their own propaganda message using one (or more) of 11 known propaganda techniques. The key is to help students begin an awareness of, and the ability to identify, how their outlook on life is related to the messages they see. This lesson takes one 60-minute class period to complete.

Objectives

  • Students will be able to identify what propaganda is and how is it used.
  • Students will be able to explain the various propaganda techniques and how they affect the dissemination of information.
  • Students will be able to interpret propaganda and spin to make an informed decision.

Common Core State Standards

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

Length

50 minutes

Materials / resources

Blackboard or whiteboard

Teacher laptop and digital projector

Internet access

Images of propaganda

Judging Propaganda worksheet

Lesson step-by-step

Step 1 — Warm-up (5 minutes)

Instructor will write the word propaganda on the board and ask students, as a class, what this word means to them. What do they think when they heard the word? Prompt students to think about the definition, examples, situations in which it is used, and why it would be used in a situation.

After the discussion, students should understand that propaganda refers to a type of message aimed at influencing opinions and/or the behavior of people. Propaganda may provide only partial information or be deliberately misleading. Propaganda techniques are often found on television and radio, as well as magazines and newspapers.

Step 2 — Samples of propaganda (5 minutes)

Show or distribute the attached examples of propaganda and discuss with students:

  • What technique is being used?
  • What do you think the purpose of this image is?
  • Is this propaganda?  Why or why not?  If yes, which pieces of information regarding the subject of the image are not addressed?
  • What might we learn about society based on the pieces of propaganda?
  • Is propaganda only limited to foreign governments with communistic or dictatorial regimes? Has the United States ever generated propaganda?

Step 3 — Assessing prior knowledge (5 minutes)

Ask students what types of propaganda techniques they can name. After a short discussion, introduce (or review) the following 11 techniques of propaganda:

  • Emotional appeal (i.e. fear):  Appealing to the emotions of an audience.  For example, when a propagandist warns members of her audience that disaster will result if they do not follow a particular course of action, they are using fear appeal.
  • Glittering generalities:  Words of praise for a product or person; use of nice words such as “goodness” or “patriotism.”
  • Testimonials: Famous people or figures who will appear trustworthy speak to the audience in promotion of a product or idea.
  • Bandwagon:  The basic theme of the bandwagon appeal is that “everyone else is doing it, and so should you.”
  • Plain-folks: By using the plain-folks technique, speakers attempt to convince their audience that they, and their ideas, are “of the people.”
  • Scientific approach:  Using scientific jargon (i.e. numbers, statistics, data, etc.) to convince your audience.
  • Snob appeal:  Giving the impression that people of wealth and prestige are on board.
  • Card stacking:  Only presenting one side of the issue/situation.
  • Transfer:  Transfer is a device by which the propagandist carries over the authority, sanction, and prestige of something we respect and revere to something he would have us accept.
  • Name-calling:  The linking of a person or idea to a negative symbol in hopes the audience will reject the person or the idea on the basis of the negative symbol, instead of looking at the available evidence.
  • Euphemisms:  An attempt to pacify the audience to make an unpleasant reality more palatable. This is accomplished by using words that are bland and euphemistic.

Step 4 — Small group work and discussion (5 minutes)

Place students into small groups and hand out the attached Kids Voting worksheet, “Judging Propaganda.” Have students complete the sheet in their groups then go over the answers as a class:

  1. B        6. H
  2. E        7. C
  3. A        8. F
  4. D       9. G
  5. J       10. I

Discuss:

  • Why should we examine advertisements, campaigns, and various media forms in general for propaganda?  Is propaganda a negative tactic in your opinion?  Explain.
  • Out of the types of propaganda from the worksheet, which do you think is most effective and why?  Which do you think may be used to disguise truth the easiest?

Part 2 of lesson: Utilize a Propaganda Technique to Create an Advertisement

Step 5 — Identification of technique (15 minutes)

Next, assign each group one of the propaganda techniques from the handout.  Then, tell the groups to complete the following assignment:

  • You have been assigned a particular propaganda technique. As a group, create an ad to present to class using this propaganda technique. You may create an ad for a newspaper or a poster.
  • The purpose of the ad is to recruit votes for Steve Williams, who is running for your state’s Senate.
  • You may be creative in the content you provide about Williams, but it must be presented in a way that utilizes your propaganda technique.
  • Be prepared to present your ad to the remainder of class in 15 minutes.
  • Instructor note: If using this activity during an election time, assign students a real political figure for whom to create an ad. Students would then need to research facts about that figure and his/her political values and agenda so that their ad is realistic to the candidate while still utilizing the assigned propaganda technique.  

Step 6 — Student presentations (15 minutes)

Once students are finished, have them present their ad to the remainder of class without sharing the propaganda technique they were assigned.  After each presentation, instruct the rest of class to identify which technique the group utilized. Discuss:

  • How did the ads for Williams differ?
  • Of all the ads you heard/saw today from classmates, which ad would make you most want to vote for Williams and why?
  • When politicians are campaigning during elections, in what ways do they utilize the techniques that you just used in your own ads?  How do these propaganda techniques affect the election process?

Step 7 — Assessment

For homework, instruct students to bring in an example of propaganda. Students should examine magazines, the Internet, or watch TV and scan for examples then summarize the ad example on notebook paper, classify the type of propaganda used in the ad, and evaluate its effectiveness. Ask students to bring in copies of the ads if possible.

Assessment

Exceeds Expectations – Student performance far exceeds minimal level of performance.

Meets Expectations – Criterion is met at a minimal level.

Revisit – Criterion not met. Student responses are weak or unfocused to be acceptable.

Exceeds expectations Meets expectations Revisit
Student understands and knows the 11 propaganda techniques.
Student created a propaganda message that fits into one (or more) of the 11 techniques.
Student presented their assigned propaganda technique to the class.
Student located a current example of propaganda.

 

Resources

Judging Propaganda

Listed below are the names of propaganda techniques, followed by specific examples. Match the name of the technique to the example by placing the letter in the box.

a. Emotional appeal           f. Scientific approach

b. Glittering generalities    g. Snob appeal

C.Testimonials                   h. Card stacking.

d. Bandwagon                     i. Transfer

e. Plain folks                       j. Name calling

 

  1. These are vague, nice-sounding descriptions of things: “Have a lawn that makes you proud.” “Get the biggest bang for your buck.” “… stronger, brighter.”
  2. This appeals to your sense of home and family: “Lemonade, just like grandma used to make.” “The hearth-baked goodness of whole grain bread.” “It’s as American as apple pie.”
  3. This is a direct line to your fear, anger, pity, or sense of humor: “Don’t be bullied into paying more taxes that you already do.” “If you know the feeling of a dead battery on a lonely road, then buy …”
  4. Since many people want to do what everyone else is doing, you are urged to get onboard and join the crowd: “Be like Mike.” “Keep up with the Jones and make your home the best it can be.” “Join the younger generation and vote for …”
  5. One blame problems on a group, person or idea: “Our downfall began with the other party.” “I inherited the budget deficit from my predecessor.”
  6. One only presents one side and hides the other. One only presents what is favorable or what is unfavorable, whatever serves the cause.
  7. These refer to people who are either unnamed, unknown or famous who have something positive to say about the product, issue or candidate. Everyone is made to sound like an expert: “Most experienced mothers depend upon …” “These movie stars are voting for …”
  8. Tests, statistics and pseudo-scientific jargon are used to be convincing: “Four out of five dentists use …” “Research shows …” “The polls show our candidate ahead.”
  9. These give the impression that people of elegance, wealth, good taste and intelligence will buy the product or vote for the issue or candidate” “When only the very best will do, buy …” “People of status will vote for …”
  10. One groups things for a stronger effect. The following combinations of traits do not necessarily go together: “Young and joyous,” “think and juicy,” “old and wise.”

Examples of Propaganda

Works Cited and Resources

ChangingMinds.org. (2017, May 21). Name-calling. Retrieved May 21, 2017, from ChangingMinds.org: http://changingminds.org/techniques/propaganda/name_calling.htm

NC Civic Education Consortium. (2017, May 21). Propaganda and Spin. Retrieved from StudyLib: http://studylib.net/doc/8877067/spin—database-of-k

Child Abuse. 2012. Photograph. Child Health Foundation. Child Health Foundation, 9 Mar. 2012. Web. 21 May 2017.  <http://adsoftheworld.com/sites/default/files/images/childhealthscream.jpg

Perkins, Matthew. “Food and Society.”: Subway Sunday: Eat Fresh? Blogger, 16 May 2014. Web. 21 May 2017. <http://foodandsocietyathanover.blogspot.kr/2014/05/subway-sunday-eat-fresh.html>

Proactive. Digital Image. Propaganda Project 16 May 2014. Web. 21 May 2017. <http://propagandaproject2013.weebly.com/commercial.html>

Williams, Morgan. Digital image. WordPress.com. N.p., 9 Apr. 2013. Web. 21 May 2017. <http://morganjlw.wordpress.com/2013/04/09/arguments-get-on-the-bandwagon-american-wwii-propaganda/>

Beneker, Gerrit A. Digital image. Library of Congress., 1918. Web. 21 May 2017. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3g09651/>.

Burger King. (2013). Big taste. Less fat. [Advertisement]. Retrieved from <http://propagandafoodcomms9.weebly.com/card-stacking.html>

Under Armor. (2013). The advantage is undeniable. [Advertisement]. Retrieved from <http://www.keywordsuggests.com/F2V2*C6Doj5eueL0gE2wu24qFAerMHUz%7C3dG0YXV4ts/>

Corona. (2014). Find your beach. [Advertisement]. Retrieved from <https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/97/ac/5b/97ac5b722fa2ae88c5fb738b6b1bb7b1.jpghttp://www.keywordsuggests.com/F2V2*C6Doj5eueL0gE2wu24qFAerMHUz%7C3dG0YXV4ts/>

Hopps, Harry R. “Destroy This Mad Brute.” Digital Desk., 1917. Web. 21 May 2017.  <http://www.digitaldesk.org/projects/secondary/propaganda/destroy_brute.html>

The Concensus Project. (2011). Climate change is real. [Advertisement]. Retrieved from <http://theconsensusproject.com/#sharePagehttp://www.keywordsuggests.com/F2V2*C6Doj5eueL0gE2wu24qFAerMHUz%7C3dG0YXV4ts/>

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How to spot fake news

Posted by on Aug 29, 2017 in Blog, Lessons, Scholastic Journalism, Teaching | 0 comments

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by Michael Johnson

Title

How to spot fake news

Description
There has been a lot of talk lately about “fake news” because it has been particularly prevalent during the recent 2016 Presidential election campaign. According to a recent Pew Research Center study, 62 percent of Americans get their news from social media sites and 44 percent get their news specifically from Facebook. Nearly 90 percent of millennials regularly get news from Facebook. In addition, a recent study from Stanford University revealed that many teens have difficulty analyzing the news; 82 percent of middle school students surveyed couldn’t tell the difference between an ad labeled “sponsored content” and a legitimate news story.  

This lesson provides an opportunity for students to learn what fake news is, differentiate it from other types of news (including satirical, misleading and tabloid news), develop strategies for spotting fake news and consider what can be done about the proliferation of fake news.

Objectives

  • Students will reflect on their own experiences with and preferences of their news sources.
  • Students will show they understand what “fake news” is and identify strategies for differentiating real and fake news.
  • Students will explore what can be done to be better consumers of news and what else they can do for their school, community and society about fake news.

Common Core State Standards

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.11-12.5 Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.

Length

100 minutes

Materials / resources

Blackboard or whiteboard

Teacher laptop and digital projector

Internet access

Panetta homework

Assessment

Information to share with students

How to spot fake news

Lesson step-by-step Day 1

Step 1 — Warm-up: Activity I: What is the News and How Do We Get it? (15 minutes)

  1. Ask students: What is news? Elicit a definition of news as a printed, broadcast or digital (i.e.  technological) report of factual information about important events in the world, country or local area.” You can print this on the board/smart board if you think it would be helpful.
  2. Ask students: Where do you get your news? Explain that we get our news from a variety of sources and show students that some of those sources are written on pieces of paper around the classroom. Read aloud the six signs as follows: (1) Social Media (Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, SnapChat, YouTube), (2) Online News Website, (3) Television News, (4) Radio/Podcasts, (5) Newspaper/Magazines and (6) Friends and Family. Answer any questions students may have about the categories. Then have students think for a minute about the news source where they get the most news or one that they like the best. Ask them to move to the part of the room with the sign designating their preferred news source. Give a few minutes for students to situate themselves.
  3. When students are in their chosen parts of the room, have them talk with each other about (1) why they like using that news source and (2) what are some of the limitations/negatives of that news source. Have them designate one person as the recorder to report back to the rest of the class what they discussed in their groups.  
  4. Have each group report back to the class what they discussed in their groups, focusing on why they like their chosen news source and identifying its limitations/negatives.

Step 2 — Activity II: Turn and Talk: Real News or Fake News? (35 minutes)

  1. Engage in a brief discussion by asking: What did you notice about the different news sources, what we liked and the limitations of each? After hearing about the other news sources, did it make you feel differently about the news source you picked (please explain)?
  2. Explain to students there has been a lot of talk lately about “fake news,” especially around the 2016 Presidential Election. Ask students: What is fake news? What is a fake news site? Elicit and explain that fake news websites publish untrue or fake information to drive web traffic to the site. The goal is to mislead readers to believe the stories and to make money through advertising. Social media sites are used to spread the fake news. Also, explain that there are some fake news sites that contain factual news stories that are used to camouflage the fact that other news stories are untrue and fake.
  3. Share examples of fake news and real news by having students access three examples of news stories.

After accessing each example, have students jot down the title of the news story, whether they think it’s fake or real, and at least three reasons for why. As you share the websites, make sure to scroll around the website and highlight the web address, logo, contact information, story author, etc. to give students a sense of everything on the website in order to best assess it.  

  1. After going through each of the examples, have students turn and talk to a person sitting next to them and together, come up with a general list of how they know a news story is real and why they might suspect a news story is fake. They can create a chart for recording their answers as follows:
How You Know It’s Real Why You Suspect/Know It’s Fake

 

  1. Engage students in a discussion by asking the following question:
  • Was it easy or difficult to determine whether the news was fake or real? Explain.
  • What were some clues that the news was not true?
  • How did you feel when you found a news story was fake if you originally thought it was real?

Lesson step-by-step Day 2

Step 1: Reading (20 minutes)

  1. Link to the article How to Spot Fake News and give students 10–15 minutes to read it silently (do not assign for homework the night before).
  2. After students have read the article, engage them in a class discussion by asking the following questions:
  3. What did you learn that you didn’t know before?
  • Have you ever used any of the strategies discussed in the article? Please explain.
  • Why do you think fake news is created?
  • What are the dangers of fake news?
  • How might you think differently about news after reading the article?

Step 2: Discussion (10 minutes)

Ask students: What can we do about fake news? What can we do individually and what might we do with others in our school or larger community? Create a brainstormed list which may include some of the following and divide the ideas into two categories — “What I can do to spot fake news?” and “What I can do to educate my school, community and society about fake news?”  

  • Triple check news sources
  • Look for clues
  • Teach others how to spot fake news
  • Use only certain news sources
  • Google the news story and see if it is included on other news sources that I know
  • Don’t get news only from social media
  • Write letters to social media sites to get them to crack down on fake news
  • Use fact-checking websites such as Snopes.com,  FactCheck.org, The Washington Post Fact Checker and PolitiFact.com

Step 3: Writing (20 minutes)

Have students write a short synopsis about what they learned about fake news, their best strategies for spotting fake news and/or what we can do as individuals or as a community/society about fake news. They should write their piece as either a Facebook post (that they are sharing with their followers, to inform them) or as a short blog post (which then you could publish later on a class blog). Have students complete their writing as a homework assignment. Have students share their writing with the class and if not completed, share the first few sentences.

Assessment

Exceeds Expectations Meets Expectations Revisit
Student understands what fake news is and can identify it.
Student can tell the difference between real news vs. fake news
Student short synopsis about what they learned about fake news.

 

Information to share with students

  • There is a difference between (1) fake news, which is explained above, (2) misleading news, which often contains some truth including a fact, event or quote that has been taken out of context; these can be difficult to debunk, (3) satirical news, which will often cover current events and then satirize the tone and content of traditional news, using humor, sarcasm and falsities; a good example of satire news is The Onion. Satirical news does not intend to mislead and profit from readers believing the stories as true, and (4) tabloid news, which is a style of news that emphasizes sensational crime stories, gossip columns about celebrities.
  • According to a recent Pew Research Center study, 62 percent of Americans get their news from social media and 44 percent get their news from Facebook specifically. Of those who get news on at least one of the social media sites, the majority (64 percent) get their news on just one platform, most commonly Facebook. In addition, YouTube, Facebook and Instagram news users are more likely to get their news online mostly “by chance,” while they are online doing other things. Nearly 90 percent of millennials regularly get news from Facebook.
  • A recent study called Evaluating Information: The Cornerstone of Civic Online revealed that teenagers may have some difficulty analyzing the news. Eighty-two percent of middle school students surveyed couldn’t tell the difference between an ad labeled “sponsored content” and a legitimate news story.
  • Fake news has been particularly prevalent during the recent 2016 Presidential election campaign. The top Google news link for “final election results” was from a fake-news site called “70 News,” which “reported” that Donald Trump had won both the electoral and popular vote. The Washington Post pointed out that it isn’t true. New web sites designed to trick and mislead people pop up every day.
  • Fake news creators make money in very similar ways from how traditional news companies make money, from advertisements. They have display advertising for which they receive a small portion (i.e. a few cents) for every person who visits that page. Their goal is to get the news to go viral so a lot of people will visit; more social shares mean more page views which result in more money. Among a growing group of Macedonian teenagers, the most successful of those creating fake news sites can earn up to $5,000 a month.
  • Because a lot of the fake news appears and is shared through Google and Facebook, they have taken steps to do something about it. Google announced that it will prohibit “misrepresentative content” from appearing on its advertising network. Facebook says it will not place ads from fake news publishers on third party apps or websites, because the content falls under the broader category of “illegal, misleading or deceptive” content.

Works Cited

American News. (2017, May 29). ALERT: Bananas Being Injected With HIV Blood … Here’s How You Can Tell. Retrieved from American News: http://americannews.com/alert-bananas-injected-hiv-blood-heres-can-tell/

Anti-Defamation League. (2017, May 21). What is Fake News? Retrieved from Anti-Defamation League: https://www.adl.org/education/resources/tools-and-strategies/table-talk/fake-news

ChangingMinds.org. (2017, May 21). Name-calling. Retrieved May 21, 2017, from ChangingMinds.org: http://changingminds.org/techniques/propaganda/name_calling.htm

NC Civic Education Consortium. (2017, May 21). Propaganda and Spin. Retrieved from StudyLib: http://studylib.net/doc/8877067/spin—database-of-k

NC Civic Education Consortium. (2017, May 21). Propaganda and Spin. Retrieved from StudyLib: http://studylib.net/doc/8877067/spin—database-of-k

Panetta, L. E. (2001, September 9). The Price of ‘Spin’ versus the ‘Truth’. Retrieved from The Monterrey County Herald: http://www.panettainstitute.org/programs/leon-panetta-commentaries/commentaries-from-2001/the-price-of-spin-versus-the-truth/

Robertson, E. K. (2016, november 18). How to Spot Fake News. Retrieved from FactCheck.org: http://www.factcheck.org/2016/11/how-to-spot-fake-news/

Rustling, J. (2016, November 11). Obama Signs Executive Order Banning The National Anthem At All Sporting Events Nationwide. Retrieved from ABC News: http://abcnews.com.co/obama-signs-executive-order-banning-national-anthem/

The Associated Press. (2016, November 28). Dylann Roof, Charleston Church Shooting Suspect, Can Act as His Own Attorney. Retrieved from NBCnews.com: http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/charleston-church-shooting/dylann-roof-charleston-church-shootingsuspect-can-act-his-own-n689151

Weiss, L. (2001, September 10). American Political Spin Cycle Is Out of Control. Retrieved from The Utah Daily Chronicle Archive: http://archive.dailyutahchronicle.com/2001/09/10/american-political-spin-cycle-is-out-of-control/

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Spin and how it works

Posted by on Aug 29, 2017 in Blog, Lessons, Scholastic Journalism, Teaching | 0 comments

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by Michael Johnson

Title

Spin and how it works

Description
In this lesson, students pick up where they left off in propaganda techniques as well as the concept of “spin” and discuss how politicians use these techniques to sway public opinion. Students will identify propaganda used in past and current ads and create their own advertisement using an assigned propaganda technique. Students will also examine how politicians spin current events to suit their own agendas and will assume the role of a prominent political figure’s communication representative who is responsible for spinning news events.

Objectives

  • Students will identify what is spin and in what ways to politicians employ this technique.
  • Students will be able to explain how a candidate’s party affiliation and agenda inform their public comments.
  • Students will be able to show how spin affect the media and the way it reports news.
  • Students will be able to demonstrate how citizens decipher spin to make an educated decision on issues and reported news.

Common Core State Standards

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.2 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

Length

100 minutes

Materials / resources

Blackboard or whiteboard

Teacher laptop and digital projector

Internet access

Panetta homework

Assessment

Put a political spin on things

Spin reflection chart

Computers/laptops (day 2)

Lesson step-by-step Day 1

Warm-up

Exploring “Spin”

Step 1 — Warm up (2 minutes)

As a warm-up, write the following on the board for students to read as they enter class:

  • As of next month, condom dispensing machines will be installed in both male and female bathrooms.

Step 2 — Small group work and debrief (18 minutes)

Divide students into small groups and tell them to write a short blurb announcing this news in the school newspaper from the perspective of one of the following groups (group assignments can be repeated if you have a larger class):

  • Group 1: School administrators who are concerned with teen pregnancy numbers on the rise among younger-age girls.
  • Group 2: Student health advocacy group called “Making Wiser Choices.”
  • Group 3: A student faith-based organization.
  • Group 4: Parent-Teacher Organization (PTO).
  • Group 5: A group of pregnant teens who favor the installation of the machines in male and female bathrooms.
  • Group 6: A male group of young fathers (Young Fathers Making a Stand) who favor installation of the machines.

Give students 5-10 minutes to compile their news blurb then have each group share their blurb with class. Discuss:

  • In what ways did our blurbs differ?
  • Even though we were all responding to the same topic, why did our blurbs differ? (They were told from people with differing perspectives and agendas).
  • In what ways does this happen in the media today?

Step 3 — Debrief and second practice (20 minutes)

Explain to students that when newsworthy events occur, politicians often utilize “spin,” which is a heavily biased portrayal in one’s own favor of an event or situation. Politicians will provide their point of view or interpretation of the event in a way that is compatible with their own agenda to sway public opinion. While traditional public relations may also rely on creative presentation of the facts, “spin” often, though not always, implies disingenuous, deceptive and/or highly manipulative tactics. Politicians are often accused of spin by commentators and political opponents when they produce a counter argument or position.

  1. Give students another scenario to report on, such as:

This year, prom will not be held on the school premises. Rather than a DJ, a band has been hired to play. Ticket prices will cost $50 extra.

  1. Again, in their small groups, students will write a short blurb for their town’s paper regarding prom from their perspective:
  • Group 1: Parent Prom Planning Committee, who likes the changes since they want to make the prom a very exclusive, high-class event in hopes of attracting wealthier families to the school system.
  • Group 2: “Students for Students,” a student lead group who is concerned less wealthy students will not be able to attend prom due to the changes.
  • Group 3: School administrators, who hope cut back on prom cost while charging more; this will create extra revenue for updating the library collection.
  • Group 4: “Rock Till’ You Drop,” the band that has been hired to play the prom.  This is your first gig and you hope it will be the start of a big local career.
  • Group 5: “DJ Jazzy Jake and Company,” the DJ who was not rehired to play this year’s prom.
  1. After a few minutes, again have students share their blurbs and discuss:
  • How did news of the same event change when given by people with different agendas?
  • Can you think of any events, either current or historical, that have been ‘spun’ by politicians?
  • Is it ethical to spin a situation in one’s favor, or towards one’s own agenda?
  • When dealing with politics, do you think it is possible to say something neutral about a political situation?  

Step 4 — Read and discuss (10 minutes)

Have students link to the opinion article “American Political Spin Cycle is Out of Control.” (While the article is from 2001, its subject maintains relevance.) After students have read, discuss as a class:

  • Laura Weiss states, “What politicians write and say dizzies the public’s mind on a grand scale” and that spin has gotten “out of control.”  Do you agree or disagree and why?
  • How can political spin be deceiving?
  • Why do you think Weiss calls the White House (regardless of the party in power) “America’s largest spin producing institution”?
  • Who is responsible for uncovering the validity or underlying truth (if any) beneath spin?
  • Weiss says that the White House attempts to keep “scandalous news” from breaking on the TV. Is this a violation of freedom of the press in your opinion? Should there be limitations to what the press can report on? Explain.
  • What can the public do regarding campaign spin?

Lesson step-by-step Day 2

Practicing Political “Spin”

Step 1 — Brainstorm and assignment overview (10 minutes)

Have students brainstorm recent events that have been in the local, national and/or international news that they think are very susceptible to spin. Then, divide the class into small groups, assigning each group a current political figure. Give the group the attached assignment explanation, “Put a Political Spin on Things.” Go over the assignment sheet together, which explains to students that they are to imagine they are their assigned politician’s communications team. They must first research the views of the political figure assigned to them. Students will need computers with Internet access; sites such as ontheissues.org will help students understand the views and voting records of politicians. Visit one of the following two web pages:

Instructor may have students select their current home state or choose any state they wish. Once students become familiar with their chosen/assigned political figure, they will attempt to spin a recent news event.

Step 2 — Small group work clarification and work (35 minutes)

Allow students to ask questions, then instruct them to work on their statement. After groups are finished, bring everyone back together and give each student the attached Spin Reflection Sheet. Have each group present their work, first giving a summary of who they work for (the political figure chosen/assigned to them), their figure’s political party, and the figure’s views/political agenda. Then, groups should share their statements that have been prepared with spin. All students should take notes on their reflection sheet as they listen to each group’s presentation. After all student have presented, discuss:

  • What were the major differences between the talking points of political figures? Did their party affiliation make a difference? Explain.
  • What makes a successful “spin”?
  • For any given event, is there a single truth about what happened or does it always depend on who is telling the story and how they tell it?  Explain.
  • Is spin deceitful in your opinion?  Is it possible to eradicate spin?  Explain.
  • How does a candidate’s political agenda as connected to their party, and the way he/she communicates, shape our political system?
  • Do you use spin when discussing events in your own life? If so, in what ways and why?
  • If you were a politician, is there anything that you would consider to be off-limits to spin? Why or why not?
  • As responsible citizens, how do we make an educated decision on which candidate to vote for when there is so much spin and propaganda at play? What questions do we need to ask ourselves when viewing, hearing, and reading campaign ads or candidate response blurbs?

Step 3 — Homework (5 minutes)

Assign the attached homework assignment in which students respond to Leon E. Panetta’s opinion of spin and how it is affecting America.

Assessment

Exceeds Expectations Meets Expectations Revisit
Participation in three classroom activities
Student understands the concept of spin.
Student understands how certain groups use spin for their own benefit/agenda.
Student successfully “spins” a fictional news event that fits his/her candidate’s political agenda/platform.

Resources

Put a Political Spin on Things

  • Your group has been hired as the communications team for a prominent political figure assigned to you.
  • As new employees, you must first learn about the views and political agenda of your politician by reading information from the aforementioned “ontheissues.org” web links.
  • Pay close attention to this person’s political party, current and past positions, and his/her fundamental political beliefs and/or agenda. Together, discuss and summarize this information and be prepared to present to your classmates.
  • Once you are familiar with this figure’s political perspective, your first public relations assignment is to comment on the following situation. Create a 5-10 sentence statement that “spins” the following situation in a way that encompasses your figure’s point of view and supports his/her political agenda:

Ten U.S. soldiers were killed and 14 more were wounded, along with scores of other soldiers from NATO countries, in action during fighting yesterday with ISIS forces in eastern Syria.

  • Remember, the spin you put on the statements you make to the media on behalf of your political employer will affect his/her status in the public eye and could possibly affect his/her election or re-election during the next cycle. In other words, this affects YOUR employment, both current and future prospects.

Spin Reflection Chart

Political figure Party Affiliation Beliefs/Agenda Summary

Name ______________________________________________

 

Homework

Read the following excerpt from Leon Panetta’s article, “The Price of ‘Spin’ Versus the ‘Truth,’” and answer the following questions that follow:

Huey Long—the infamous Louisiana politician of the Thirties—once promised a certain constituency in an election campaign that he would deliver a public works project to them if elected. When he failed to deliver the project after he was elected, he was asked why. His reply: “I lied!”

Long’s admission was brutally frank. It was the kind of honesty that worked well for Long. Why is it so difficult to work for many of those in public office today?

The typical strategy is to tell people what consultants and pollsters say the public wants to hear and when the facts prove differently, to keep repeating the same words in the hope that repetition somehow will make it right. But there is a terrible price to be paid for this political “spin” game—the lost trust of the people.

As our parents did, we try to teach our children to be truthful. Our very democracy is dependent on a strong relationship of trust between the people and their leaders. But in recent years, whether because of lost values or the ease and speed of modern communications, a bad example is being set for future generations by those who tell people the political message rather than what is really happening.

This may provide some short-term political gains, but ultimately, the nation pays a terrible price. Huey Long decided to tell the simple truth when he said he lied in his campaign. It might just be that telling the simple truth can work to restore both our politics and our democracy. Lord knows, it’s worth a try.

From “The Price of ‘Spin’ Versus the ‘Truth,’” by Leon E. Panetta, The Monterrey County Herald, Sept. 9, 2001. http://www.panettainstitute.org/programs/leon-panetta-commentaries/commentaries-from-2001/the-price-of-spin-versus-the-truth/

 

Respond to the following questions with your thoughts (Use the back, if necessary)

  1. Panetta says, “… honesty … worked well for Long. Why is it so difficult to for many of those in public office today?” Do you agree that many people in public office are dishonest? Why do you think public officials find it difficult to be honest?
  2. Do you agree with Panetta when he says that due to the “spin game,” people have lost trust in government and politics? Why? What evidence makes you think this?
  3. Panetta also states, “… a bad message is being set for future generations by those who tell people the political message rather than what is really happening.” How do you interpret this comment? Do you agree or disagree? Explain.
  4. The [spin] may provide some short-term political gains, but ultimately, the nation pays a terrible price.” What terrible price do you think Panetta is implying?

Works Cited

ChangingMinds.org. (2017, May 21). Name-calling. Retrieved May 21, 2017, from ChangingMinds.org: http://changingminds.org/techniques/propaganda/name_calling.htm

NC Civic Education Consortium. (2017, May 21). Propaganda and Spin. Retrieved from StudyLib: http://studylib.net/doc/8877067/spin—database-of-k

NC Civic Education Consortium. (2017, May 21). Propaganda and Spin. Retrieved from StudyLib: http://studylib.net/doc/8877067/spin—database-of-k

Panetta, L. E. (2001, September 9). The Price of ‘Spin’ versus the ‘Truth’. Retrieved from The Monterrey County Herald: http://www.panettainstitute.org/programs/leon-panetta-commentaries/commentaries-from-2001/the-price-of-spin-versus-the-truth/

Weiss, L. (2001, September 10). American Political Spin Cycle Is Out of Control. Retrieved from The Utah Daily Chronicle Archive: http://archive.dailyutahchronicle.com/2001/09/10/american-political-spin-cycle-is-out-of-control/

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Real, fake or satire?
A quick review

Posted by on Aug 29, 2017 in Blog, Lessons, Scholastic Journalism, Teaching | 0 comments

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by Michael Johnson

Jeopardy-style game activity

Following the How to Spot Fake News lesson or Satire’s role in Current Events lesson (or perhaps even on its own or before the lesson), urge students to download the Jeopardy-style game to see how they really do in identifying fake news.

There are three predominant types of news in our world today – real, fake and satirical.

What is the difference? Can you tell the difference?

  • In the format of “Jeopardy,” you will choose from five categories that contain information from various news sources.
  • Your answers will be in the form of three possible questions: “What is real news?” “What is fake news” and “What is satire?”
  • Students will be divided into three groups. Difficulty of questions determined by point total (10 points are easier than 50 points)
  • Group with the most points wins.

The game

 

Michael Johnson bio:

Michael Johnson, editor of the White Mountain Independent in Show Low, Arizona, has a Bachelor of Science in Communication from Ohio University, a Bachelor of Arts in Journalism and Mass Communication from New Mexico State University, and is nearing completion of his Master of Arts in Journalism and Communication, with a concentration in Reporting/Editing-Journalism Education, at Kent State University.

Johnson has won numerous awards for his news reporting, feature and editorial writing, and photography during his 29-year career.

Johnson said he discussed with the students the introduction to the activity, but the PowerPoint really got them interested.

The students told Johnson they now better understand how difficult it can be to tell the difference — what’s real, what’s fake and what’s satirical in nature. The said they could not always tell the difference, but now that it was explained and presented to them, they are better able to detect real from fake from satire.

Resources used in the Jeopardy-style game

Beavers, O. (2017, April 23). Pelosi: ‘Of course’ Dems can be against abortion. Retrieved from The Hill: http://thehill.com/homenews/sunday-talk-shows/330136-pelosi-of-course-democrats-can-be-against-abortion

Helin, K. (2012, May 7). Ten years ago today, Allen Iverson ranted about practice. Retrieved from NBCSports.com: http://nba.nbcsports.com/2012/05/07/ten-years-ago-today-allen-iverson-ranted-about-practice/

Holan, A. D. (2016, December 13). 2016 Lie of the Year: Fake News. Retrieved from PolitiFact: http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2016/dec/13/2016-lie-year-fake-news/

Hooper, B. (2017, April 21). Pennsylvania hockey team bans cowbells after rowdy celebration. Retrieved from United Press International: http://www.upi.com/Odd_News/2017/04/21/Pennsylvania-hockey-team-bans-cowbells-after-rowdy-celebration/1851492788987/?utm_source=sec&utm_campaign=sl&utm_medium=15

LiteraryDevices.net. (2017, April 23). Satire Definition. Retrieved from Literary Devices: Definition and Examples of Literary Terms: https://literarydevices.net/satire/

Martin, J. (2017, April 22). Photos of the Week. Retrieved from Reuters: http://in.reuters.com/news/picture/photos-of-the-week?articleId=INRTS13DRU

Moreno, N. (2017, April 9). Police: Son dead, father wounded after shooting each other in fight over dog. Retrieved from Chicago Tribune: http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/breaking/ct-two-men-shot-in-burnside-20170409-story.html

NRAI School of Mass Communication. (2016, January 7). Television Journalism 205. Retrieved from NRAI School of Mass Communication: http://delhimasscommunication.com/wp-content/uploads/…/Television-Jornalism-205.docx

On The Media. (2016, November 18). Breaking News Consumer Handbook: Fake News Edition. Retrieved from WNYC.org: http://www.wnyc.org/story/breaking-news-consumer-handbook-fake-news-edition/

Rosenberg, E. (2017, April 22). American Airlines Suspends Flight Attendant After Altercation Over Stroller. Retrieved from The New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/22/business/american-airlines-video-stroller.html?_r=0

Rustling, J. (2016, December 11). Obama Signs Executive Order Banning The Pledge Of Allegiance In Schools Nationwide. Retrieved from abcnews.com.co: http://abcnews.com.co/obama-executive-order-bans-pledge-of-allegiance-in-schools/

Snell, K. (2017, April 22). Ryan promises to keep government open — and makes no promises on health care. Retrieved from The Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/powerpost/ryan-promises-to-keep-government-open–and-makes-no-promises-on-health-care/2017/04/22/2f9aeaea-2769-11e7-b503-9d616bd5a305_story.html?utm_term=.e1f653b3ca1f

Sports Pickle. (2016, December 19). Jim Harbaugh to skip Orange Bowl so he can prepare for his next NFL head coaching job. Retrieved from Sports Pickle: https://medium.com/sportspickle/jim-harbaugh-to-skip-orange-bowl-so-he-can-prepare-for-his-next-nfl-head-coaching-job-95ea60b4f20a

Sports Pickle. (2017, January 8). Report: Odell Beckham planning to take chartered flight to New York after game with some friends. Retrieved from Sports Pickle: https://medium.com/sportspickle/report-odell-beckham-planning-to-take-chartered-flight-to-new-york-after-game-with-friends-8cbd19f3cf7a

staff, D. M. (2009, May 6). Signs of a strange world: The bizarre notices that will amuse, enlighten or just bewilder you. Retrieved from The Daily Mail of London: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1178034/Signs-strange-world-The-bizarre-notices-amuse-enlighten-just-bewilder-you.html

Stroud, F. (2017, April 23). Fake News. Retrieved from Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/fake-news.html

The New York Evening. (2017, April 10). Breaking: Malia Obama expelled from Harvard. Retrieved from The New York Evening: http://thenewyorkevening.com/2017/04/10/breaking-malia-obama-expelled-harvard/

The Spoof. (2016, October 28). Time Channel is a go. Retrieved from The Spoof: http://www.thespoof.com/spoof-news/business/127145/time-channel-is-a-go

The Spoof. (2016, September 5). Trump Proposes Ideological Purity Test. Retrieved from The Spoof: http://www.thespoof.com/spoof-news/us/126807/trump-proposes-ideological-purity-test

The Spoof. (2016, September 6). Vanna White to run for President of the U.S. Retrieved from The Spoof: http://www.thespoof.com/spoof-news/us/126811/vanna-white-to-run-for-president-of-u-s

The Spoof. (2017, April 5). Cubs Forced Out of Wrigley Field Just After Opening Day. Retrieved from The Spoof: http://www.thespoof.com/spoof-news/sport/128080/cubs-forced-out-of-wrigley-field-just-after-opening-day

The Spoof. (2017, February 25). MLB to blindfold pitchers during intentional walks. Retrieved from The Spoof: http://www.thespoof.com/spoof-news/sport/127890/mlb-to-blindfold-pitchers-during-intentional-walks

The Spoof. (2017, March 6). Portland’s homeless to be offered a hand up, instead of a handout. Retrieved from The Spoof: http://www.thespoof.com/spoof-news/us/127934/portlands-homeless-to-be-offered-a-hand-up-instead-of-a-handout

Thumbpress. (2017, April 23). Oh, the irony! 30 Funny Ironic Pictures. Retrieved from Thumbpress: http://thumbpress.com/oh-the-irony-30-funny-ironic-pictures/

U.S. Department of Defense. (2002, February 12). News Transcript – DoD News Briefing. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Defense: http://archive.defense.gov/Transcripts/Transcript.aspx?TranscriptID=2636

Weasel, D. (2015, September 1). Donald Trump promises to deport all immigrants “back to Alaska”. Retrieved from The Valley Report: https://thevalleyreport.com/2015/09/01/donald-trump-promises-to-deport-all-immigrants-back-to-alaska/

Weasel, D. (2015, August 28). Nickelback to release Greatest Hits Album; 19 tracks of silence. Retrieved from The Valley Report: https://thevalleyreport.com/2015/08/28/nickelback-to-release-greatest-hits-album-19-tracks-of-silence/

Weasel, D. (2016, April 25). Woman arrested for defecating on boss’ desk after winning the lottery. Retrieved from The Valley Report: https://thevalleyreport.com/2016/04/25/woman-arrested-for-defecating-on-boss-desk-after-winning-the-lottery/

Webopedia. (2017, April 10). Fake News: Resources for Evaluating Information: Fake News. Retrieved from Ashland University: http://libguides.ashland.edu/fakenews/info

Young, N. (2013). 20 Epic Fake Pictures that Have Fooled the Whole World. Retrieved from Photodoto: http://photodoto.com/epic-fake-pictures-that-have-fooled-the-whole-world/

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